The pandemic and the restrictions put in place last year to limit the contagion by Covid-19 have motivated the adoption of telework as a work model, with the consequent definition of a legal framework to regulate it.
In September 2020, the Council of Ministers gave the green light to a decree-law which established the new regulations for teleworking in our country. So, for example, working part-time from home or working a full day on an ad hoc basis are considered flexible practices instead of telecommuting. And it is that, for the rules of the new decree to be applied, it is necessary that the hours worked remotely represent at least 30% of the working day, during a period of three months, which is equivalent to one and a half days. . weekly. In the same way, the law establishes that the company is in charge of the provision and maintenance of the means and equipment which the worker needs to carry out his activity remotely.
Six months after the approval of the said decree-law, 40% of Spaniards nevertheless say that the main problem with current teleworking is the increase in the costs of electricity and internet at home, according to data from the InfoJobs report on teleworking * prepared in collaboration with The Cocktail Analysis. Emotional disconnection with the company / colleagues (34%) and the reduction of deadlines (31%) are the two other aspects that concern the workforce the most.
According to Mónica Pérez, Communication Director of InfoJobs: “The decree of law on teleworking was approved last year by emergency procedure and obtained the consensus of social agents to face the difficult situation and guarantee workers the same face-to-face rights and duties. -face workers. However, we are talking about a casuistry that has several peaks, since the needs of Spanish workers vary depending on the type of sector to which they belong and the activity they exercise. Likewise, the law on teleworking must take into account the needs of companies and their capacity to implement this working model ”.
Health, teleworking task
27% of the Spanish workforce is distinguished by physical problems such as muscle pain or vision problems due to teleworking. In the case of women, this percentage rises to 35%, fourteen percentage points above the figure provided by men. In addition, one in two respondents also claim to have suffered from psychological problems in the past year: stress, anxiety or lack of motivation.
Other derivative difficulties that the Spaniards also commented on in this study are: concentration problems due to distractions at home (23%), lack of productivity or performance (10%) and lack of creativity (5% ).
Saving travel time, comfort and better work-life balance, the main advantages of teleworking
On the contrary, the possibility of working remotely during these months has provided several advantages to Spanish workers. Thus, the saving in travel time (55%) is the main advantage put forward by the working population vis-à-vis this work model, followed by comfort (52%) and improved balance. private-professional life (48%).
Later, time flexibility (46%), savings in travel costs (44%), the possibility of working elsewhere (35%), increased autonomy (26%), higher productivity (24) appear. also.%) And generating less stress (23%).
By age group, young people aged 16 to 34 are the ones who put the most forward on the advantages of teleworking. So, for example, aspects such as savings in travel time, comfort or the ability to work from other locations differ by almost ten percentage points with the data of the national average.
Teleoperator, real estate agent and sales representative, the positions with the most vacancies in teleworking
Teleoperador / a is by far the position with the most teleworking vacancies in InfoJobs in 2020 (78,747). This is followed by other positions directly related to the growing ICT and digitization sector, such as software systems developer (17,847 vacancies), ICT systems analyst (3,940 vacancies) or ICT consultant (3,630 vacant jobs). Others such as the real estate agent (22,758 vacant positions) or the sales representative (18,868 vacant positions) also stand out.
In all cases, secretary, teleoperator and translator are the positions that have recorded the most increase in teleworking offers on the platform. Thus, while in 2019 InfoJobs recorded only 12 vacant teleworking positions for the secretariat, in 2019, the platform collected 1,247 vacant positions. The same goes for telemarketers (1,231 vacant positions in 2019 against 78,747 in 2020) and translators (23 vacant positions against 1,247 in 2020).
Madrid, the autonomous community that finds the most advantages in teleworking
When it comes to data from the Autonomous Communities, Madrid is the one that sees the adoption of teleworking with the best eyes. 67% of Madrid residents stress the time they save each working day while traveling, nine points more than in the case of Catalonia and thirteen more than the Basque Country. Likewise, Madrid is the one that underlines the most as a benefit the improvement of the work-life balance (54%), the savings on travel costs (53%), the possibility of working from other places (41 %) and improved productivity (32%).
Regarding the issue of remote work problems, the results of the Autonomous Communities are very similar to those of the national average, although Catalonia and Madrid stand out above all from the others by showing their concern at the increase in expenditure. such as electricity or Internet not covered by the company (respectively 47% and 46% of mentions).
Towards a hybrid telework model
The balance of advantages and disadvantages of teleworking confirms that the majority of Spanish workers bet in the future for a hybrid model combining the best of both modalities.
Thus, 36% of those questioned would still like to telework from home and only go to the office out of necessity; while 40% would prefer to telecommute only 2 or 3 days a week. Another 21% of the workforce say they would like to have the option to telecommute in a timely manner, if the need arises. On the other hand, 6 out of 10 workers who do not currently telework would like to have this possibility.
About half of companies intend to continue teleworking for the long term
Regarding companies, almost half intend to continue teleworking in the future (45%), while one in three is undecided (37%). The remaining 18% indicate that they do not plan to keep it for the future. At this point, small and medium-sized businesses are the most intending to keep it (51%), compared to 38% of small.
On the other hand, companies belonging to the Quaternary and Quinary sectors (consultancy, research, health, education, culture) are those which most intend to maintain it (60%), followed by organizations in the tertiary sector (40%) and primary-secondary (32%).
It should be noted that most companies agree with all the clauses of the law on teleworking (9 out of 10 are in favor of guaranteeing the right of the worker to digital disconnection, to the provision and maintenance of equipment, maintaining the rights and working conditions envisaged. face-to-face), even if it is true that the payment of expenses by the company is the one that raises the most discrepancies, 45% of companies opposing it.
“It is clear that companies have had to adapt their work processes and routines to remote work. But the corporate culture must also adapt to a scenario in which trust and commitment replace face-to-face. For this reason, the Telework Law continues to demand more work, effort and dialogue from the agents involved, and in particular from business and government. Thus, for example, it is necessary to study the viability that this new model has for companies, both from a technological and economic point of view, so that there is no damage and a progression that disadvantages certain sectors and companies ”, underlines Mónica Pérez.