Birmingham (United Kingdom)
The antibodies our bodies make after being vaccinated to prevent or prevent infection with a virus can be quite strong. A virus usually spreads in our body by entering a cell and using it as a factory to make copies of itself, which is spread to a large extent. Also finds new cells to spread the infection.
Our antibodies work by inhibiting this virus and this prevents the virus from entering our cells. But what if the virus doesn’t need to leave the cell to spread to surrounding cells? Will our antibodies work against him too? Scientists recently asked this question regarding SARS-CoV2, which is the cause of Kovid-19. The highly contagious corona virus can mutate human cells. It can convert infected cells into super cells by attaching them to surrounding cells.
Corona virus is able to divide due to the presence of nuclei
Being larger than normal cells and rich in genetic material, these super cells will serve as a wonderful factory for the corona virus. This super cell is also called synthia and has more than one nucleus (the center that protects genetic material inside the cell) and abundant cytoplasm (cell membrane) due to the fusion of more than one cell. . . Due to the presence of a large number of nuclei and cytoplasm in a large cell, the corona virus is easily able to divide (increase its number).
SARS-CoV-2 allows cells to multiply without being exposed to antibodies capable of killing them. Neutralizing antibodies are antibodies responsible for protecting cells against infection. In this study, Alex Siegel and his colleagues examined the transmission of two forms of coronavirus (alpha and beta) from cell to cell and their sensitivity to antibodies during transmission. The alpha form first found in Britain is susceptible to antibodies (i.e. the antibody is able to protect the body against this form of virus) and the beta form found in South Africa is less sensitive to these antibodies.
This study showed that both forms of the corona virus can successfully avoid antibodies during transmission from cell to cell. This shows that if a virus enters the body, it will be more difficult to eliminate it in the cells. Viruses have lived with humans and animals for centuries, so they are inventing ways to avoid being recognized by our immune system. Antibodies are believed to be most effective in preventing entry into the host cell and less effective in parts of the body where infection is already present. Does this mean that our vaccines are ineffective against viruses that pass from cell to cell?
“Cells are also capable of making antibodies”
T lymphocytes are white blood cells that kill infected cells after vaccination or infection. Passing viruses from one cell to another does not reduce their ability to spread infection. These cells are also capable of making antibodies. T cells can remember old infections and when the same virus strikes again, they act quickly to stop it. What happens to people who are older or who have lost parts of our immune system?
Infection with the Corona virus is usually controlled within two weeks in young people, healthy adolescents and children. In people with dysfunctional T cells, cell-to-cell transmission can block neutralizing antibodies and infection can last longer. We don’t have to worry that cell-to-cell transmission will render our vaccines groundless, but it is important to understand how a virus spreads so that we can stop it more effectively.
(Jenia Stamatki, Senior Lecturer, Viral Immunology, University of Birmingham)