Gender disparities in Spain will only be closed in 2055 if new measures promoting equality are not implemented
ClosinGap presents the ClosinGap index, the first indicator in Spain to quantify and monitor the evolution of gender equality in the country on an annual basis. The indicator, the result of the report prepared by PwC, serves as a benchmark and measures parity in five main categories – Employment, Education, Work-life balance, digitization and Health and well-being – through an analysis details of a total of 28 key variables for the personal and professional development of a company.
How much is the gender gap in Spain?
The report also quantifies the economic impact of gender gaps and their direct or indirect impact on GDP through the labor market. There are three key aspects of employment that penalize women and, consequently, the economy: their lower participation in the labor market, the decrease in the number of hours worked due to the higher rate of part-time work and the over-representation that they have in less productive economic sectors. This situation means that women, although they represent 51.4% of the working-age population, contribute only 41.5% of the GDP.
Eliminating these inequalities in the labor market as a whole will mean adding 230,847 million euros, or 18.5% of GDP. In addition, this potential increase in the economy would be driven by the creation of 3.2 million full-time equivalent female jobs and by the average increase in female productivity of 1,301 euros.
In 2020, the ClosinGap index stood at 64.1%, comprising 100% as a total parity, and therefore reveals a 35.9% gender gap that has yet to be closed. The analysis also highlights that this gap narrowed by four points during the period analyzed (2015-2020). If the trend of the last five years continues, the gender gap in Spain will not disappear completely before 2055, that is, there are still 35 years left to achieve equality between men and women. women.
According to Manuel Martn Espada, partner in charge of markets at PwC and member of the board of directors of ClosinGap: “The ClosinGap index is the first indicator of these characteristics that exists in Spain and one of the few that exist internationally and it will allow us, for the first time, to quantify and measure the opportunity cost of the gender gaps in our country, as well as to follow their evolution from year to year. It is an indicator with a very solid and proven methodology, which will be decisive in measuring and accelerating progress on the ground. kind “.
Conciliation, the great unfinished business
The ClosinGap index places the Reconciliation category at the bottom, with the largest gap, as there is still 56% to close. The report shows that women continue to do most of the unpaid work, mainly housework and childcare, which translates into much higher rates of inactivity and employment bias. Despite the fact that this is one of the most deeply rooted aspects in Spanish society and that it considerably slows down the professional and economic progress of women, the report reveals that the work-life balance is the gap which narrows at a higher annual rate. (4.4% since 2015). If this progression continues, the differences in this area will be non-existent in 2040, in 20 years.
Within the Employment category, the gap to be filled is 35%. Although women participate more and more in the labor market and for longer years, they continue to work fewer hours and with lower wages than men, which in turn translates into lower pensions. of retirement. Added to this is the so-called “glass ceiling” and the low presence of women in leadership and decision-making positions.
The results are overwhelming because, despite the gradual integration of women into the labor market over the past decades, the gap is still very marked. If the participation of women at work were equated with that of men, Spain’s GDP could increase by 10.1%. Likewise, if women’s hours worked were the same as those of their male counterparts, GDP could increase by up to 7.5%. Finally, if the sectoral distribution of women’s employment were equal to that of men, GDP would increase by up to 1%.
According to Ana Polanco, Director of the Executive Committee of ClosinGap, Head of Europe Operations at Merck and President of ASEBIO: “From the start of ClosinGap, we considered the need to develop our own indicator to measure parity and parity within a framework. integrated and objectively. the impact of inequalities on GDP. Today, after two and a half years of existence, and with a mature and consolidated project behind us, ClosinGap presents a benchmark indicator that will help public institutions and private companies to work hand in hand with the objective of transforming the society and build a healthier economy with female talent. “
In education, the ClosinGap index places the gap at 32.1%. Women have a higher university education than men, but they have very little access, in proportion to them, to careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), which are the present and the future of the world of work. This is the reason why this gap is the only one of the five to have undergone a negative evolution in recent years.
Regarding digitization, although there are no significant differences in the use of new technologies at user level between men and women, the percentage of women specialized in ICT in the labor market is still very low, with a deviation of 28.7%.
Finally, the Health and Well-being category obtains the best score (15.5%) and is the area in which Spain has evolved the most. Parity is closer, but the report shows that although women live longer, they do so with poorer health and quality of life than men. And, in addition, they are at greater risk of suffering from poverty and social exclusion.
“We must work to build a more just and equitable society, as well as a strong economy, especially in the context of the current crisis and recession. From ClosinGap, we have quantified the economic impact of inequality between gender issues on the Spanish economy., demonstrating the benefits that reducing gender disparities has both economically and socially. It is therefore a priority to join forces and continue to work together to close all the gaps, by positioning women as a key lever for the country’s economic recovery, ”says Marieta Jimnez, President of ClosinGap and European President of Merck Healthcare.