An international group of archaeologists in Israel have discovered a new human species. This discovery is described as a missing part of the history of human evolution. In fact, scientists have found a human skull during excavations at Nesher Ramla in Israel. This skull is believed to be the last surviving human from a separate Homo population. These humans lived in Israel 420,000 to 120,000 years ago.
These humans weren’t completely homo sapiens
In studies published in the famous journal Science, Israeli researchers Hershkowitz, Yoshi Zedner and their colleagues reported that this primitive human community shared its culture and genes with closely related groups of Homo sapiens for several thousand years. Analysis of other fragments, including the back of the skull and almost an entire jawbone, suggests that the man whose remains were not entirely Homo sapiens.
Their remains aren’t even found in Neanderthals
Michelle Langley, a senior researcher at Griffith University in Australia, wrote in The Conversation that these remains are believed to be between 140,000 and 120,000 years old. Not only that, these remains don’t even belong to Neanderthals, an extinct member of the Homo lineage. It is believed that only humans of this type lived in this region at this time. Instead, this individual appears to belong to a separate Homo community that has never been identified by science before.
Identification of species from the bones of the skull
By comparing it in detail with several other fossil human skulls, the researchers found that the bones on the back of the skull have archaic features. This bone is distinct from the skull bone of early and late Homo sapiens. This bone is slightly thicker than the bones found in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens, and its jaws also have archaic features but are similar to those found in Neanderthals. The bones show a distinctive blend of primitive and Neanderthal.
Do they have other people?
The authors indicated that fossils found at other sites in Israel, such as the famous Lady of Taboo, could be part of these new human populations. The “Lady of the Taboos” was discovered in 1932. After careful study, this important strange human has taught us a lot about Neanderthal anatomy and behavior at a time when we know very little about our ancestors. If Taboon C1 and other fossils from Qasim and Jutiyeh caves were members of the Nesher Ramla Homo group, in this reanalysis we would find discrepancies in anatomy previously reported by researchers.
Also found over 6000 tools
The mysterious Nesher Ramla may reflect our recent common ancestor with the Homo Neandertals. In other words, interbreeding was more frequent between different populations of Homo than previously anticipated. The team even found around 6,000 stone tools at the Nesher Ramla site. These tools were made in the same way as the Homo sapiens groups. This suggests that the Nesher Ramla Homo and Homo sapiens not only shared genes, but also tool-making techniques.
These human beings also use fire
Bones of animals that were captured, killed and eaten there were also found at this site. The find shows that the Nesher Ramla Homo hunted several species, including turtles, reindeer, aurochs, wild boars and ostriches. They also lit fires to cook their food, as evidenced by the discovery of campfires as old as fossils. True, the Nesher Ramla Homo not only collected wood to light the campfire and make the fire, but also controlled the fire as people do today.
Many questions still unanswered
Many questions remain unanswered such as how did the different Homo groups interact with each other? What does this mean for the cultural and biological changes that took place in Homo populations during this period? Continuing to work with these questions will help us better understand our human history.