India and Pakistan meet on Indus Water Agreement after two years. The two countries accuse each other of violating the agreement.
India and Pakistan met again today after about two years on the Indus Water Agreement. For this, a delegation of high-level Pakistani diplomats visited Delhi. The two countries continue to accuse them of violating this agreement from the very beginning. At today’s meeting, Pakistan expressed its objection to the construction of India’s hydroelectric project on the Chenab River, while India rejected the allegations and accused Pakistan of backlashing. Know the history of the dispute between the two countries over water …
This water agreement is 60 years old
The sharing of the waters of the Indus River took place about 60 years ago, on September 19, 1960, between India and Pakistan by the mediating World Bank. This agreement is often presented as an example of the possibilities of peaceful coexistence in the world. However, it is also not hidden from anyone that relations between India and Pakistan have repeatedly deteriorated due to the Indus Water Agreement.
What is the dispute between the two countries
Since independence in 1947, the water dispute has started in both countries. In fact, the Indus water system, which includes the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, flows through both the countries of India and Pakistan. Pakistan alleges that India is exploiting water by building dams on these rivers and that the drought is due to the scarcity of water in its region.
The Indus Water Agreement was signed by World Bank arbitration
When the dispute between the two countries over water escalated in 1949, the American expert and former head of the Tennessee Valley Authority, David Lilienthal, offered to resolve it technically. After giving his advice, Eugene Robert Blake, then President of the World Bank, agreed to mediate in September 1951 to resolve the dispute. After that, on September 19, 1960, an Indus Water Agreement was signed between India and Pakistan.
Jawaharlal Nehru and Ayub Khan signed
The treaty was signed by then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then Pakistani President Ayub Khan. The terms of the treaty came into force on January 12, 1961. Under the treaty, the sharing of the water of 6 rivers was decided, which runs from India to Pakistan.
Sharing the water of 6 rivers
It was made clear in the agreement that India has exclusive rights to the three rivers in the eastern region – Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. At the same time, there was an agreement to give water from the rivers of the western region – Indus, Chenab and Jhelum also to Pakistan. India also has the right to agriculture, navigation and domestic use of the waters of these rivers. In addition, India can develop hydropower projects according to certain design and operating parameters. Of a total of 1,680 million acres of water from three rivers, India’s share received 3.30 acres, which is about 20 percent of the total water content. However, India continues to use 93 to 94 percent of its water share.
Agreement to meet annually on water sharing
Under the Indus Water Agreement, a permanent commission was formed between India and Pakistan. Commissioners on both sides of the Indus Commission represent their governments on this deal. Under the agreement, the two commissioners are to meet once a year – one year in India and the other in Pakistan. The Indus Commission commissioners were due to meet in March, but India has offered to postpone it due to the Corona crisis. Under the terms of the agreement, the two commissioners meet on March 31 of each year.
Pakistan opposed both of India’s plans
Pakistan has reserves on India’s 330 MW Kishanganga hydropower project and 850 MW Ratale hydropower project. While India says that we are carrying out these projects for the development of Jammu and Kashmir according to the rules of the World Bank.
The World Bank again refused mediation
At the beginning of August last year, the World Bank refused to intervene again in this dispute, giving Pakistan a heavy blow. The World Bank has told Pakistan bluntly that the two countries should consider appointing a neutral expert or judicial arbitration. There is nothing we can do about this dispute. Pakistan had asked the World Bank to appoint a Court of Arbitration (COA) for two hydroelectric projects in India.