Teleworking breaks a historic record in Spain, although it remains well below the European average
Adecco Group Institute, the study and dissemination center of the Adecco group, wishes to know what is the potential degree of satisfaction of a busy environment in each of the Spanish autonomous communities. To this end, it prepares the Adecco Job Opportunities and Satisfaction Monitor which, every six months for nine years, deepens this level of satisfaction, as well as the employment opportunities on the labor market.
For the preparation of the report, five fundamental areas of people’s working environment are taken into consideration, such as remuneration, job security (ranging from accidents to taking care of the unemployed for economic benefit), employment opportunities and professional development, reconciliation between personal and professional life and work conflict. In total, 16 different sub-variables are analyzed. In this second part of the Adecco Monitor, we focus on the section on reconciliation between personal and professional life, in which the evolution of telework and part-time employment is analyzed above all.
Historic record for teleworking
A year ago, the number of people who teleworked, at least occasionally, reached a record level in our country with just over 1.5 million (7.9% of people working in Spain at the time). Galicia, Extremadura, Catalonia and the Balearic Islands were the autonomous regions with the highest proportion of teleworkers.
With the outbreak of the pandemic and the state of alert decree in March 2019, the total number of people who work at least occasionally from home more than doubled in the second quarter of last year (when home containment was taxed), exceeding 3.5 million. people, an all-time high. Since then, the total number of teleworkers has risen to 2.86 million in the fourth quarter in Spain as a whole, a figure which in any case represents an increase of 74.2% year on year. This means that there are now 1.2 million more teleworkers than a year ago.
Teleworking in Spain, well below the European average
Despite the significant expansion of teleworking in recent months, the integration of this working method in Spain is far behind that of most of the countries in our immediate environment. If, as we have just seen, the proportion of teleworkers in the total number of employees is 14.5% in our country, the European Union average is 21.5%.
Among European countries, there are two in which more than 40% of teleworking is employed. These are Sweden (40.9%) and the Netherlands (40.1%). They are followed, with more than 35%, by Luxembourg (37.5%) and Finland (33.5%).
Among the largest EU countries, only Italy has a lower proportion of teleworkers than Spain (9.8%). In the United Kingdom, the proportion reaches 31.1% (although having left the EU, we include it for a better regional comparison), while in France, it is 28.3%. For its part, the proportion of salaried Germans who telework, 18.5%, is lower than the European average, but still much higher than that of Spain. It should be mentioned that teleworking is a modality that benefits 20.7% of workers in Portugal.
Bulgaria (4.7%) and Romania (5.4%) are among the countries where teleworking is least developed, with 5% or less of their workers having access to this possibility.
Teleworking in the different autonomous regions of Spain
The evolution of homework has had a different behavior within the Spanish Autonomous Communities. While all show year-over-year growth in their proportion of employed people who telecommute, there are important differences.
For example, the Community of Madrid and Catalonia have more than doubled their number of teleworkers, with annual increases of 200% and 119% respectively. The Canaries (+ 65.8%) and La Rioja (60%) also posted significant increases. In contrast, Aragn, Extremadura and the Valencian Community show increases of less than 20% (respectively 9.9%, 16.3% and 18.2%).
Translated into absolute terms, these percentages of increase mean that in 2020 the Community of Madrid increased its number of teleworkers by 512,000 people (for a total of 767,200 people), while Catalonia did so by 35,000 people ( bringing the total to 645,400 teleworkers).). The two communities concentrate 7 new teleworkers out of 10 coming from all over Spain.
The disparity in the growth of telework has dramatically altered the geographic distribution of telework in Spain. Before the pandemic, in the fourth quarter of 2019, Catalonia had 18% of all workers who said they worked at least occasionally from home. Next come the Community of Madrid with 15.6%, Andalusia with 15.3% and the Valencian Community with 10.9%. In total, these four Autonomous Communities accounted for almost 60% of the total teleworkers in Spain.
After the outbreak of the pandemic, the latest data from the fourth quarter of 2020 shows that Madrid has emerged as the leader in teleworking, with 26.9% of all Spanish teleworkers, overtaking Catalonia, despite the fact that it has increased until 22.6%. Andaluca retains third place, but with less than half the number of teleworkers than Madrid and less participation in national teleworking, for a total of 12.8%. The participation of the Valencian Community in national teleworking has also been reduced to 7.4%.
The presence of teleworking has been concentrated in the Community of Madrid and Catalonia, which have fallen from a third of the country’s total teleworkers to half. If we add Andalusia and the Valencian Community, we see that the four autonomous regions with the highest number of teleworkers have gone from 60% of the total to 70%.
In any case, the proportion of employees who telework has increased in all the autonomous communities. The largest increase is recorded in the Community of Madrid, where the proportion of teleworkers jumped by 14 percentage points, reaching 22.3% of its employees able to work from home. This is the highest record achieved by an autonomy in the 15 years covered by the statistics for this variable.
Catalonia takes second place, with an annual increase of 8.6 pp, bringing its proportion to 17.2%. Asturias occupy the third place, with 15.4% (+4.5 pp).
Just a year ago, 15 autonomous regions had less than 10% teleworkers in the total number of employees. There are now only three: La Rioja (9.6%; +3.6 pp), Canarias and La Regin de Murcia (9.8% in both cases, with increases, respectively, of 3, 6 pp and 2.4 pp).
1 in 4 jobs lost, part-time
Another of the variables that the Adecco Monitor takes into account to measure the opportunities to reconcile personal and professional life is the inclusion of part-time work in the labor market, understood as an opportunity to combine work and studies, support for members family or similar. Activities.
Part-time employment continued the downward trend it started in 2019. Its decline has been more marked than that of total employment, so it has fallen not only in absolute terms but also as a proportion of the number. total number of people employed. In 2020, 145,700 part-time jobs were lost (-4.9% over one year). Almost one in four jobs lost during the pandemic were of this type. As a result, the share of part-time employees in total employees fell to 14%, 6 tenths lower than a year ago and the lowest figure since June 2012.
All the autonomous regions imitate the general pattern, with a decrease in the percentage of people working part-time, with the sole exception of the Valencian Community. In Navarre, Extremadura and Castile-La Mancha, the inter-annual decrease was more than a percentage point.
The Valencian Community recovered first place, with 16.1% of part-time employees (interannual increase of one tenth), overtaking the Basque Country by hundredths (decrease of 6 tenths). The more marked decline in other regions pushed Castilla y Len, which was seventh a year ago, to climb to third place, with 15.1% (2 tenths less than a year earlier).
If at the end of 2019 there were two autonomous regions with less than 13% of part-time employees, there are now three: Canarias (12.1%; -0.8 pp), Baleares (12.6 %; -0.1 pp)) and the Community of Madrid (12.9%; -0.3 pp).