The number of people who want to work longer hours and cannot find a place to
Adecco Group Institute, the study and dissemination center of the Adecco group, wishes to know the potential level of satisfaction of an active media in each of the Spanish autonomous communities. To do this, the Adecco Monitor for Job Opportunities and Satisfaction elaborates on this level of satisfaction, as well as on employment opportunities on the labor market.
Labor disturbances are reduced
The restrictions on the normal development of economic activity resulting from the measures to combat the pandemic have led to a collapse in the number of strikes and their participation.
Thus, the number of strikes in Spain has been reduced for the third consecutive quarter, with which there are 8.5 disputes per 100,000 companies. Not only is this a figure that results in an inter-annual reduction of 49.2%, but it is the smallest record that statistics have collected in at least 20 years.
The number of conflicts fell in all autonomous regions for the third consecutive quarter, which has not happened either, at least in the last 20 years. A clear example of the decline in the number of strikes is that, for the first time, statistics show the case of an autonomy that has not recorded any. This is La Rioja, where the drop from one year to the next was therefore 100%.
Leaving aside the case of La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Cantabria, Asturias, the Valencian Community, Extremadura, Galicia and Navarra have recorded annual decreases in the number of strikes. ‘at least 65%.
After La Rioja, without conflict, the Valencian Community, the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands were placed, with less than 2 strikes per 100,000 companies. The three regions with the highest number of conflicts remain the Basque Country (73.5 strikes per 100,000 companies, after a decrease of 39.4%), Navarre (now with 47.4 conflicts, with a decrease of 66.8 %) and Asturias (18.3 strikes, still every 100,000 companies; -66.1%).
The number of workers participating in strikes has decreased in line with the number of conflicts. Across Spain, strike participants fell 49.7% year-on-year, leaving 16.8 strikers for every 10,000 workers. This is the lowest figure for at least 20 years.
In 15 autonomies, the number of strikers decreased and in the other two autonomies, it increased. The only ones showing an increase are the region of Murcia and Extremadura. In Murcia, participation rose to 26.6 strikers for 10,000 employees (+ 188% over one year). In Extremadura, the increase, although significant (+ 65.2%), brought strike participation to just 2.4 strikers per 10,000 employees, less than a fifth of the national average.
La Rioja presents, once again, an exceptional situation, because, not having had any strikes, there are no strikers either. They are followed, with the lowest participation in strikes, in the Canaries and Castilla-La Mancha, with 0.6 participants in strikes in both cases (year-on-year decreases of 84.9% and 64.2 %, respectively). The Balearic Islands and Andalusia have 1.7 strikers per 10,000 employees (drops of 86.9% and 89.1%, respectively). These five regions are the only ones with less than 2 participants in strikes for every 10,000 people employed.
The Basque Country remains the region with the highest participation in strikes, despite the drop of 67.5%, so there are 66.9 strikers, still for 10,000 people employed. It is followed by Catalonia (43 participants in the conflicts, after an annual decrease of 10.3%, which is the smallest reduction among the 15 autonomies which decreased participation in strikes). In addition, the third autonomy with the highest proportion of strikers is the Region of Murcia, with the data indicated above.
History of highly skilled tasks
Over the past year, employment in our country has been reduced in 14 of the 17 autonomies. However, when we break down the variation in the number of employees into two main categories, depending on the level of training required by each position, we find that 99% of the jobs lost are medium or low skilled. Indeed, if 615,900 jobs of average or low qualification were lost (-4.6% over one year), only 6,700 highly qualified positions were eliminated (-0.1%).
The above is confirmed by observing that while only two autonomies show an increase in employment in medium or low skill positions, eight communities have increased employment in highly skilled positions.
Eight autonomies followed the general model of job destruction in both categories. Among them, the cases of the Canary Islands (-15.2% over one year in jobs with medium or low qualification and -4% in those with high level of qualification) and the Valencian Community (-4.2% and – 1.7%, respectively) stand out.
Seven other regions saw their number of people in highly skilled jobs increase at the same time as employment in the others declined. The Balearic Islands present the greatest contrast, with a 15.5% drop in employment with medium or low qualifications (the largest drop of all autonomies) and a 10.6% increase in people employed in highly skilled tasks (the second largest regional increase).
In the region of Murcia, too, the contrast is marked (-5.3% in the case of medium or low qualification and + 15.4% in the case of high qualification), but with the advantage of having obtained an increase in l total employment.
There are two special cases. One is that of La Rioja, which is the only autonomous region where employment has increased in both professional categories (+ 0.8% over one year in highly qualified positions and + 0.1% in average or weak). The other is Extremadura, which is the only one to have destroyed highly qualified jobs (-8.8%) and created jobs with medium or low qualifications (+ 5.2%).
As a result of the comments in the previous paragraphs, there has been a general increase in the proportion of highly skilled jobs in total employment. In Spain as a whole, it rose to 34.5%, 1.3 percentage points higher than a year earlier. This is the highest proportion recorded in the statistics.
The Community of Madrid (45.7%), the Basque Country (38.8%) and Catalonia (37.3%) have the highest proportions of skilled jobs. However, the largest increase corresponds to the Balearic Islands (+ 5.3 pp, reaching 32.3%).
Extremadura (24.7%), Castilla-La Mancha (28.2%) and La Rioja (28.5%) are in the opposite situation.
People who want to work longer and can’t find where
Hourly underemployment is the situation faced by those who work less full time, want and are available to work more hours, but cannot find where to do it. This group was continuously reduced from March 2014 to June 2020; but from there it started to increase.
In Spain, there are just over 1.8 million people in a situation of hourly underemployment, 15,600 more than a year earlier (+ 0.9% over one year) and the highest number since June 2018. comparison with the extent of the decline in economic activity. The explanation is that those who are underemployed are, by definition, part-time workers. The latter group experienced a year-over-year decline of 145,700 people (-4.9%). It can be deduced from this that a part of the underemployed people became unemployed or inactive, which limited the increase in the group analyzed.
Taking into account the moving average of the last four quarters, it can be seen that the proportion of people in a situation of underemployment in the total number of jobs remained the same as in the previous year, at 8.8%.
Only in three autonomous communities, this proportion is 10% or more. These are the cases of Extremadura (11.2%, after a drop of one tenth year on year), the Region of Murcia (10.8%; implies a reduction of 3 tenths) and of Navarre (10.4%, the same as the previous year).
At the opposite extreme, three autonomous regions stand out with 7% or less of employees in a situation of hourly underemployment: La Rioja (6.6%), Catalonia (6.8%) and the Basque Country (7 %; in all three cases, with a decrease of one tenth from one year to the next).