Adecco Group Institute, the study and dissemination center of the Adecco group, wishes to know what is the potential degree of satisfaction of a busy environment in each of the Spanish autonomous communities. To do this, it prepares the Adecco Job Opportunities and Satisfaction Monitor which, every six months for nine years, deepens this level of satisfaction, as well as employment opportunities in the labor market.
For the preparation of the report, five fundamental areas of people’s working environment are taken into consideration, such as remuneration, job security (ranging from accidents to taking care of the unemployed for economic benefit), employment opportunities and professional development, reconciliation between personal and professional life and work conflict. In total, 16 different sub-variables are analyzed.
In this third and final installment of the Adecco Monitor, we focus on the sections of employment opportunities and professional development and labor disorders, in which data relating to skilled employment and unemployment rates, as well as that the holding of strikes, are analyzed above all. And the participants in them.
History of highly skilled tasks
Over the past year, employment in our country has declined in 14 of the 17 autonomous regions. However, when we break down the variation in the number of employees into two main categories, depending on the level of training required by each position, we find that 99% of the jobs lost are of medium or low qualification. Indeed, while 615,900 low- and medium-skilled jobs were lost (-4.6% over one year), only 6,700 highly skilled jobs were lost (-0.1%).
The above is confirmed by observing that while only two autonomous regions show an increase in employment in medium or low skill positions, eight communities have increased employment in highly skilled positions.
Eight Autonomous Communities followed the general pattern of job destruction in both categories. Among them, the cases of the Canary Islands (-15.2% over one year in jobs with medium or low qualification and -4% in those with high level of qualification) and the Valencian Community (-4.2% and – 1.7%, respectively) stand out.
Seven other regions saw their numbers in highly skilled jobs increase at the same time as employment in others declined. The Balearic Islands show the greatest contrast, with a 15.5% drop in employment with medium or low qualifications (the largest drop of any autonomous region) and a 10.6% increase in people employed in highly skilled tasks (the second largest autonomous increase).
In the region of Murcia, too, the contrast is marked (-5.3% in the case of medium or low qualification and + 15.4% in the case of high qualification), but with the advantage of having obtained an increase in l total employment.
There are two special cases. One is that of La Rioja, which is the only autonomous region where employment has increased in both professional categories (+ 0.8% over one year in highly qualified positions and + 0.1% in highly qualified positions. medium or low). The other is that of Extremadura, which is the only one to have destroyed highly qualified jobs (-8.8%) and created jobs with medium or low qualification (+ 5.2%).
As a result of the comments made in the previous paragraphs, there has been a general increase in the proportion of highly skilled jobs in total employment. In Spain as a whole, it rose to 34.5%, 1.3 percentage points higher than a year earlier. This is the highest proportion recorded in the statistics.
The Community of Madrid (45.7%), the Basque Country (38.8%) and Catalonia (37.3%) have the highest proportions of skilled jobs. However, the largest increase corresponds to the Balearic Islands (+ 5.3 pp, reaching 32.3%).
In the opposite situation are Extremadura (24.7%), Castilla-La Mancha (28.2%) and La Rioja (28.5%).
People who want to work longer and can’t find where
Underemployment is the situation faced by those who work less time than full time, want and are available to work longer hours, but cannot find where to do it. This group was continuously reduced from March 2014 to June 2020; but from there it started to increase.
In Spain, there are just over 1.8 million people in a situation of hourly underemployment, 15,600 more than a year earlier (+ 0.9% over one year) and the highest number since June 2018. comparison with the extent of the deterioration of the economic activity. The explanation is that those who are underemployed are, by definition, part-time workers. The latter group experienced a year-over-year decline of 145,700 people (-4.9%). It can be deduced from this that a part of the underemployed people became unemployed or inactive, which limited the increase in the group analyzed.
Taking into account the moving average of the last four quarters, it can be seen that the proportion of people in a situation of underemployment in the total number of jobs remained the same as in the previous year, at 8.8%.
The number of conflicts fell in all autonomous regions for the third consecutive quarter, which has not happened either, at least in the last 20 years. A clear example of the decrease in the number of strikes is that, for the first time, statistics show the case of an autonomous region which has not recorded any. This is La Rioja, where the rate over one year was therefore 100%.
Leaving aside the case of La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Cantabria, Asturias, the Valencian Community, Extremadura, Galicia and Navarra have recorded annual decreases in the number of strikes. ‘at least 65%.
After La Rioja, without conflict, the Valencian Community, the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands were placed, with less than 2 strikes per 100,000 companies. The three regions with the highest number of conflicts remain the Basque Country (73.5 strikes per 100,000 companies, after a decrease of 39.4%), Navarre (now with 47.4 conflicts, with a decrease of 66.8 %) and Asturias (18.3 strikes, still every 100,000 companies; -66.1%).
The number of workers participating in strikes has decreased in line with the number of conflicts. In Spain as a whole, the number of strikers fell 49.7% year-on-year, leaving 16.8 strikers per 10,000 workers. This is the lowest figure for at least 20 years.
In 15 autonomous regions the number of strikers decreased and in the other two autonomous regions it increased. The only ones showing an increase are the region of Murcia and Extremadura. In the case of Murcia, participation rose to 26.6 strikers per 10,000 employees (+ 188% over one year). In Extremadura, the increase, although significant (+ 65.2%), brought strike participation to just 2.4 strikers per 10,000 employees, less than a fifth of the national average.
La Rioja presents, once again, an exceptional situation, because, not having had any strikes, there are no strikers either. They are followed, with the lowest participation in strikes, Canaries and Castilla-La Mancha, with 0.6 participants in strikes in both cases (interannual decreases of 84.9% and 64.2%, respectively). The Balearic Islands and Andalusia have 1.7 strikers per 10,000 employees (drops of 86.9% and 89.1%, respectively). These five regions are the only ones with less than 2 participants in strikes for every 10,000 people employed.
The Basque Country remains the region with the highest participation in strikes, despite the drop of 67.5%, so there are 66.9 strikers, still for 10,000 people employed. It is followed by Catalonia (43 participants in the conflicts, after an annual decrease of 10.3%, ie the smallest reduction among the 15 autonomous communities which decreased participation in strikes). Further away, the third autonomous region with the highest proportion of strikers is the region of Murcia, with the data shown above.