This Sunday is celebrated the International Day of Education, understood as a human right, a public good and a collective responsibility. An event which, according to UNESCO, aims to commemorate the important role that education plays in peace and development. The theme of this new edition will be “Recovering and revitalizing education for the COVID-19 generation”.
In this context, the Adecco Group Institute, study and awareness center of the Adecco Group, wishes to promote education as a key aspect of access to a job and to know the data which attest to the importance of training. to find a job. employment.
According to the National Institute of Statistics in 2019 in Spain, the premature dropping out of education (people aged 18 to 24 who have not completed secondary education) reaches the figure of 21.4% for men (the highest of all EU countries) and 13% for women (one of the highest in the EU, surpassed only by Bulgaria, Malta and Romania).
Despite these figures, the report of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) “ Panorama of Education 2019 ” highlights that the Spanish adult population with a level of education above the compulsory level reaches 60.2% .
Education and training are the main determinants of employability, the ability of a professional to enter the labor market, as well as its ease in maintaining a stable position over time.
According to the same OECD report, the higher the level of education, the better the results in terms of employment and wages. In 2018, the employment rate of people with higher education degrees in Spain reached 78%.
In recent years, training has moved from the perception of training as a simple tool for acquiring knowledge to its vision as a continuous activity, focused on the development of capacities that guarantee employability.
In this sense, Javier Blasco, director of the Adecco Group Institute, underlines that: “the strategic importance of promoting a requalification model to adapt to future changes, and the temporary need for professional reorientation in the most important sectors. affected by the pandemic, highlight the potential of vocational training. It is not only a question of the needs resulting from the digital transformation, but in a few months, we will again identify shortages of qualified personnel both in growing sectors and in sectors that now seem irrecoverable, such as the hospitality industry or the trade “.
“We need to overcome the traditional disconnect between training and job offer. The rates are not sustainable, as contradictory as they are high in our country, such as overqualification or dropping out of school. The Spanish qualification system is constantly updated, and thanks to public-private collaboration – both in the educational and professional environment – and to the promotion of active employment policies, we will be able to emerge stronger from this crisis, by making the talent of our workers a vector of competitiveness, ”Blasco assesses.
Profession by level of education
As we saw a few days ago, in the VIII Adecco Annual Occupation Monitor, the pandemic wiped out virtually all the jobs created in the previous two years, as 697,400 jobs were destroyed last year (-3 , 5% yoy),
In the last four quarters, only the number of employed persons with higher education level increased, while that of those with lower education level decreased. The loss of employment is all the more serious when the level of education is low.
38,900 people with higher education qualifications were hired (+ 0.4%). These hires contrast with the dismissal of 162,600 people with primary education (-15.5%), 457,700 people with lower secondary education (-8.5%) and 116,000 people with upper secondary and / or vocational training ( -2.4%).
From this perspective, the 19.2 million Spaniards employed can be broken down into 884,400 without more than primary education, 4.9 million with the first level of secondary education, 4.6 million with the second level of secondary education or FP and 8, 7 million with higher education.
Employability and training
While the above data in itself speaks volumes about the fundamental importance of education as a means of maximizing employment opportunities, this is even more evident when the level of training requested in job advertisements is taken. into account, as evidenced by the latest Adecco Infoempleo report “Job supply and demand in Spain”.
A changing labor market like the present one needs professionals prepared and equipped with the right skills to develop their careers in a changing scenario. In this context, university graduates remain the candidates most requested by companies in their job offers. In the past year, a college degree is present as a requirement in four out of ten job postings, or the like, 38.8% of postings have, among their requirements, that the candidate has gone to the university. One option – university education – which, added to an even higher level, that of master’s and / or postgraduate studies, means receiving 42.7% of the job vacancies generated last year in our country.
However, those with only compulsory secondary education are still the least requested candidates by companies in their vacancies. In the last year, only 9% of offers included among their requirements that the candidate has only the Graduate of the School or similar, without further higher education.
The OECD is committed to vocational training to facilitate students’ access to the labor market. The Panorama of Education 2019 study highlights that VET is seen as more effective in developing skills that lead to earlier access to the labor market. According to the data collected, only 18.7% of Spanish 17-year-old students choose VET in upper secondary education.
According to the Adecco Infoempleo report “Job supply and demand in Spain”, VET is the most requested non-university course in our country: 38.76% of job vacancies indicate this. By very little difference, offers that require a university degree exceed those that require a VET degree.
Continuing with the next level of training, the master’s and / or postgraduate degree is a differentiator in employability, because in addition to the percentage expressly requested in the job offers, on equal terms for two candidates, the selection technicians will choose who has this type of higher specialized training.
The master’s and / or postgraduate degree fulfills two key functions in placement:
Promoting access to the first job Facilitating the improvement of the professional category among experienced professionals.
In the overall number of job vacancies published last year, 3.55% included the need for postgraduate studies among their requirements, an increase that more than doubled the value collected in 2018 (1.4 %). Taking as a reference all the offers intended for candidates with a university degree, a necessary preliminary step for obtaining an official third cycle degree, the percentage rises to 8.4%. The figure rises to 39.1% when this type of higher education is treated not as a requirement, but as a generator of differential value for an application.
The growing demand for candidates with this type of training is mainly due to the fact that it is the only way to access the practice of certain professions which, by their nature or by legal imperative, require a specific master’s degree (law, law, education at certain levels, architecture, certain women engineers, etc.), and increased demand for vacant positions in management categories.